Investigating the impact of dynamic movements of

a multi-robot on human perception and emotion

2018 - present

Funded by NSF Grant No. IIS-1846221.



Supervised by

Prof. Byung-Cheol Min

SMART Lab, Purdue University

My role:

HCI researcher

Research methodologies:

lab-based experiments, interview, survey


While research on human-robot interaction is ongoing as robots become more readily available and easier to use, the study of interactions between a human and a team of multiple robots represents a relatively new field of research. Furthermore, how multi-robots could be used for everyday users and how the characteristics of multi-robots would affect human perception and cognition has not been explored. In this regard, our research team developed a multi-robot based interface where a multi-robot could present a dectic cue to emphasize information with its dynamic movement. With the newly developed interface, we specifically focus on physical affordances generated by the movements of multi-robots, and investigate the effects of deictic movements of multi-robots on information retrieval by conducting a delayed free recall task.  From behavior data and interview data, we noted the kinesthetic movements of the multi-robot helped them to recognize the bonus word and recall the whole image of the board; that is, the multi-robot created a prominent affordance.

The main contributions of this work are as follows: (1) developing a multi-robot-based interface for deictic communication, (2) designing experimental settings to investigate the effect of multi-robots on informa-tion retrieval using a delayed free recall task, (3) combining quantitative and qualitative findings to investigate how a multi-robot reshapes the way people perceive information and (4) presenting design variables that should be considered to develop a multi-robot-based display.

Research Aim

  • Develop a multi-robot based interface that can be used in everyday lives

  • Examine how the characteristics of a multi-robot would affect human perception and cognition

  • Develop a design guideline for a multi-robot based interface 


  • Lee, A., Jo, W., Kannan, S. S., & Min, B. C. (2021). Investigating the Effect of Deictic Movements of a Multi-robot. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 37(3), 197-210. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2020.1812908

  • Jo, W., Kannan, S. S., Cha, G. E., Lee, A., & Min, B. C. (2020, October). ROSbag-based Multimodal Affective Dataset for Emotional and Cognitive States. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 226-233). IEEE. DOI: 10.1109/SMC42975.2020.9283320 

  • Jo, W., Park, J. H., Lee, S., Lee, A., & Min, B. C. (2019, March). Design of a human multi-robot interaction medium of cognitive perception. In 2019 14th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) (pp. 652-653). IEEE.